To help you see just how much waste your plastic water bottle is responsible for, let’s go through the stages that bottle’s life cycle.
First, crude oil and natural gas are pulled from the earth through large-scale extraction operations.
Shipment #1: From here, the crude oil is shipped to a refinery. Make note of how many rounds of shipping are involved in the production of your water bottle. Each of these stages requires vehicles to burn fuel and release greenhouse gasses, creating a lot of waste.
The refinery then distills the oil into its component parts, i.e. gas, fuel oil, etc.
Shipment #2: Then the refined oil is shipped to a plastics factory.
At the plastics factory, the oil chemically bonds with gas molecules to create monomers. These monomers undergo chemical processes which then bond them together into polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the polymer most plastic water bottles are made from.
The PET mixture at this point is in the form of many tiny pellets. The manufacturing plant melts them down and injects the mixture into molds. The plastic takes the familiar shape of a bottle.
Shipment #3: Next, the empty plastic bottles are shipped to the bottling plant.
The bottling plant fills the water bottles with water. The bottles are then packaged.
Shipment #4: The water bottles are then shipped to the grocery store, where they’re stocked and placed on shelves.
Shipment #5: You buy the water bottles and drive them from the store to your home.
You drink the water and toss the empty bottle into the trash or recycling.
Shipment #6: The bottles are then picked up by waste management services. Approximately 73-90% of them go straight to landfills, where they’ll take about 500 years to decompose.
The other 10-27% of bottles that are recycled are instead taken to recycling centers. The recycling center then sorts the bottles, melts them back down into pellets, and remakes them into other products. Those include things like carpeting, clothing, and other plastic items.
Eventually, those products are also thrown in the trash, and that 10-27% of bottles that are recycled still end up in a landfill for the next 500 years.
In previous decades, most news with global reach came from several major newspapers and networks with the resources to gather information directly. The speed with which information spreads now, however, has created the ideal conditions for something called circular reporting. Noah Tavlin sheds light on this phenomenon.
2.Which of the following has NOT directly contributed to an increase of circular reporting?
3.Why might the anti-vaccer movement be considered a product of circular reporting?
4.Before the 20th century, because it took longer to publish writing, it was more accurate.
5.Which of the following is NOT an example of circular reporting?
6.What are some ways you can avoid falling for false information, and avoid contributing to the cycle of circular reporting?
7.What makes circularly reported facts so difficult to correct?
8.Circular reporting isn’t limited to large-scale media and news. How does circular reporting apply to rumors and gossip?
Does everyone who publishes any writing—even if it’s on their personal blog—have a responsibility to cite their sources and be factually accurate? Or does this responsibility only apply to professional writers published by well-known publications and websites? Why or why not?
What images spring to mind when you hear the word ‘sport’?
Why do so many people like sport?
Why are some people not interested in sport?
How often do you read sports news?
Do you prefer playing or watching sports?
Do you have good or bad experiences with sports at school?
Do you think sports stars have the best life?
Who is your favourite all-time sport star?
Richard M. Nixon said: « I don’t know anything that builds the will to win better than competitive sports. » Do you agree?
George Orwell said: « Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence. In other words, it is war minus the shooting. » Do you agree?
5. Winter sports vocabulary activity
6. Winter Olympics
7. Write on (What is your favorite Winter sport and why ?)